Specification Guides

Metals - Types, Grades, Technical Data

A. PLAIN METALS

a) STAINLESS STEEL ALLOY 304
This is the metal of choice for most architectural and any decorative surfaces. Ideal for fabrication. It is highly resistant to corrosion and therefore suitable for outdoor applications. No protective coating is required.

b) STAINLESS STEEL ALLOY 316
It is rarely used except when its particularly strong resistance to corrosion becomes a factor: chemical environments or similar exposures. It does not require any protective coatings.

c) STAINLESS STEEL ALLOY 430
Not usable for architectural or other quality installations, this alloy contains a fair amount of iron and will therefore oxidize. It is commonly used for lower grade fabrication.

d) BRASS ALLOYS 464 - 260 - 280
This yellow metal is a copper alloy and is available in many different alloys, having different trade names. Alloy 464 is called Naval Brass, Alloy 260 is called Cartridge Brass and Alloy 280 is called Muntz. All 3 are very close in color. Naval Brass in quality grades is widely available. Muntz, best known by architects, has become increasingly scarce in recent years. It is highly recommended to specify Naval or Cartridge Brass for decorative applications.
Any brass will need to be clear lacquer coated to prevent and retard tarnishing. It is not recommended to specify brass for outdoor applications, especially not in hot and humid tropical or marine environments, or in non-air-conditioned buildings in such climates.

e) BRASS ALLOY 220 (COMMERCIAL BRONZE)
Because of its trade name "Commercial Bronze," this alloy is commonly referred to as Bronze (real Bronze does not exist in sheet form). Its reddish color is highly attractive and can be matched with hardware in real bronze. Again, this alloy needs to be clear lacquer coated and all other recommendations for Brass will apply.

f) COPPER ALLOY 110
Plain copper sheets in their reddish color are very beautiful. But many of the more complex decorative finishes can only be applied with great risk or subsequent, residual tarnishing. Best uses for copper are full sheet oxidation finishes and textures on metal laminates.
Again, copper needs to be clear lacquer coated and all other recommendations such as for Brass apply also for Copper.

g) ALUMINUM
This material is the most common metal on earth and it exists in many different alloys, grades of hardness and quality. Most are suitable for the various decorative finishes. Since Aluminum does oxidize, albeit very slowly, a protective coating is necessary. The coating for outdoor applications is anodized, whereas clear lacquer coatings are sufficient for indoor applications. Aluminum can also be dyed successfully with organic dyes or coated with transparent colored coatings.
Aluminum's main features are: light weight and low cost. Ease of cutting light gauge material by conventional means, give it a much wider market for decorative applications than Stainless Steel.

h) COLD ROLLED STEEL
This is the professional name for ordinary steel sheets, the most widely used sheet metal in fabrication and construction. Because it is basically an iron alloy, it needs to be particularly well protected against rust. This metal is only suitable as a base metal for decorative applications in paint and vinyl coatings, for example.

B. METAL LAMINATES

a) STAINLESS STEEL - COPPER - ALUMINUM - BRASS
All of these metals are widely used as metal laminates. The most common metal is aluminum, either clear coated or anodized.
A metal laminate is a sandwich of a thin metal foil bonded by glue + pressure to a substrate of phenolic resin or similar. Or 2 thin sheets of plain aluminum are sandwiched over a resin core.

ALMOST ANY OF THE DECORATED FINISHES DISCUSSED HERE CAN BE PRODUCED ON THESE LAMINATES AS WELL AS ON PLAIN METAL.

While metal laminates are lighter, most often less costly and easier to cut to size than plain metals, the choice between both will depend on physical characteristics.

All major HPL distributors distribute extensive documentation on metal laminate specs and recommendations how to handle and fabricate.

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Sheet Sizes - Metal Colors, Tolerances, Variances

A. SHEET SIZES

Dimensions: Plain undecorated metal and metal laminates

Mat'l Dim. Inches 24" x 96" 36" x 96" 48" x 96" 24" x 120" 36" x 120" 48" x 120"

Mat'l Dim (mm) 609 x 2438 914 x 2438 1219 x 2438 609 x 3048 914 x 3048 1219 x 3048

Dimensions: Alpha Collection and Some Border-to-Border Patterns
Mat'l Dim. Inches 24" x 96" 36" x 96" 48" x 96" 24" x 120" 36" x 120" 48" x 120"

Mat'l Dim (mm) 609 x 2438 914 x 2438 1219 x 2438 609 x 3048 914 x 3048 1219 x 3048

Dimensions: Custom Metal Graphics

Mat'l Dim. Inches Any size up to 40" x 120"
Mat'l Dim (mm) Any size up to (1016 x 3048)

Specifiers should consider the most economical use of these standard sizes before designing a project, If the intended metal facing has formed edges, the overall blank size should always fall within a standard size.

B. METAL COLORS, TOLERANCES, VARIANCES

Any metal surface, plain or laminated, may show very slight variances in the color of the alloy, from sheet to sheet. If this variance is virtually absent in most aluminum alloys it does exist more often in Stainless Steel sheets and more often still in Copper alloys.

These variances have their origin in production methods and batch mode production in the steel mills. Highly structured design patterns or rough type textures are often the best way to overcome such variances.
A specifier should establish some parameters of acceptable tolerances when this is important.

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Material Thickness

Plain metal sheets of architectural quality vary in thickness between .124" = 3.00 MM and 0.025" = 0.60 MM.  Just as any other high traffic and high wear application, the specifier needs to consider minimum thickness to avoid denting. Elevator surfaces such as doors and cab wall facings are usually specified in "18 gauge" = 0.050" = 1.20 MM If the plain metal sheet is glued to a solid substrate, such as steel, heavy plywood or particle board, then 20 gauge - 0.040" = 1.00 MM Stainless Steel is sufficient. For an identical application in copper alloys (which are softer materials) we recommend to specify nothing less than 18 or 16 gauge = 0.050" or 0.060" = 1.20 MM or 1.50 MM.

If the plain metal sheet is used for a hollow structure, such as a column cover, at least 14 Gauge Stainless Steel or 12 Gauge = 0.124" or 3.00 MM Copper Alloys of Aluminum should be specified.

METAL LAMINATES are less prone to denting because of the inbuilt resilience of the phenolic resin substrates. However hollow or self-supporting structures cannot be built from metal laminates. The exception to that rule are the metals sandwiched over a resin core, ex. Alucobond. Such laminates are ideal for any hollow core construction.
If the specified metal is too thin, then the fabrication process like forming, bending, roll forming and especially any welding, will distort the metal sheet: it does not look flat, it is warped, it is "oil-canning."

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES CAN ANY DECORATED METAL SHEETS BE WELDED BECAUSE IT WILL DESTROY THE DECORATIVE FINISH IN THE WELDED AREA.

The specifier should avoid specifying highly decorated facings with metal which is too thin for the intended purpose. The resulting installation will look poor while the extra cost for decorated metal will be wasted.

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Wearing - Scratch/Dent Resistance

It is a myth that some metals will not be scratched! Any metal can be scratched and dented. The specifier should therefore avoid decorated metals, plain or laminates, for any horizontal application.

Wear and vandalism are a fact of life: many modern textures and small incremental design patterns will effectively hide ordinary wear and light intentional scratching. Some textures such as Random Swirl type grinding finishes were actually designed to absorb heavy wear and vandalism.

Other finishes such as long grain Satin, Polishing, Pearl Satin, Non Directional Satin, can actually be reconditioned and repaired in site, if a repair intervention can be justified economically.

In many countries, metal maintenance teams are trained to recondition such surfaces. If the metal is severely dented, it cannot be repaired and must be replaced.

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Forming and Decorated Metals

Any design pattern finish will look twice as good when formed. Especially curved surfaces such as columns, soffits or similar acquire added reflectivity and brilliance. Because forming is an inexpensive technique, specifiers could make much better use of its multiple possibilities.

A. PLAIN METALS

EDGE BENDING
Except for aluminum, all decorated sheet metal alloys in Stainless Steel and Brass/Copper can easily be bent to at least 90 degrees without noticeable loss to the decorated finish on the edge.
If a sharp, almost pointed, 90 degree angle is necessary, the metal sheet needs to be V grooved in the back before bending. In this case there is no distortion of a pattern.

B. DEEP FORMING
If any decorated design patterns, especially symmetric drawings, are deeply "drawn," severe distortion of the design will result with all metals. In such cases, the designer will specify free form, random type pattern or texture which will not show the effects from forming.
In some cases, the effect of distortion is desirable as long as it is controllable at fabrication.

C. COLUMN COVER FORMING
Most column covers are roll or press brake formed. Because such radii are generally not tight, no visible deformation of the decorated surfaces will result.

D. BENDING/FORMING OF CLEAR COATED SHEET METAL
90 degree edge bending, deep forming or even some roll-forming of previously clear lacquer epoxy or urethane coating can cause the coating to crack or even to de-laminate in the bent/formed areas:
COPPER ALLOYS: The micro cracks resulting from above should be resealed after bending/forming to avoid tarnishing of the edge or formed area.

ALUMINUM: The resulting cracks in the edge or formed areas are much less of a problem since oxidation of aluminum which is mostly used in indoor applications, is very slow and insignificant in relation to the probable life cycle of the application.

Most aluminum alloys and hardness graduated types are relatively brittle and cannot easily be formed without cracking and without developing an ugly stretching of the surface called "orange peel." If this condition is severe, it will affect the decorative finish.

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Maintenance

A. STAINLESS STEEL

Since Stainless Steel does not oxidize or require a protective lacquer coating, it should only be cleaned with a soft damp cotton cloth and mild detergent containing no abrasives. Wiping should always follow any visible grain direction of the finish and be applied without any pressure.
USE OF ABRASIVE CLEANERS, POWDERS, SCOURING PADS, STEEL WOOL, SANDPAPER, ETC. WILL DAMAGE ANY FINISH PERMANENTLY. ACID OR ALKALINE CLEANERS, SOLVENTS OR OTHER LIQUIDS MAY ETCH, OXIDIZE OR OTHERWISE DAMAGE STAINLESS STEEL.
Any persisting stains like sugar, fingerprints, oil, should be removed while wiping without pressure with a soft cotton cloth and a small amount of lacquer thinner or mineral spirits. This should be followed by wiping with a mild commercial glass cleaner. If the decorative design pattern on Stainless Steel includes area which are electroplated with gold, these areas are particularly sensitive to abrasion and chemicals, and are not suitable for outdoor applications.

B. CLEAR LACQUER, EPOXY OR URETHANE CLEAR COATED COPPER ALLOYS AND ALUMINUM.

Contrary to Stainless Steel, where any dirt or staining resides directly on the metal surface, such problems will be located on the surface of the clear coatings of these metals.

All clear coatings are sensitive to scratching and abrasion. Therefore the same instructions and cautionary measures as for Stainless Steel apply to safeguard the integrity of clear coatings.

EXCEPTION: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD SOLVENTS SUCH AS LACQUER THINNER OR M.E.K. OR ANY OTHER ACID CAUSTIC LIQUIDS BE USED WHICH WOULD BE ABLE TO DISSOLVE OR ETCH SUCH CLEAR COATINGS.

The only mild solvent which can be used successfully on most clear coatings is mineral spirits, followed by a wipe with a mild glass cleaner containing little or no ammonia.

If the clear coatings are accidentally or intentionally removed, scratched or otherwise compromised, the underlying metal will tarnish in the exposed area. In this case, professional metal maintenance is required.

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Peel Coating

All decorated sheet metal and laminates are always shipped with a protective and removable peel coating. Some of them are colored white, blue or black. Most decorated metal design patterns are covered with a transparent peel coating to signal an expensive finish.

Peel coat does not only protect during handling and transport, but especially during fabrication. Therefore the thickness of peel coats should not be less than 0.002" = 0.05 MM, with an optimal protection with 0.004" = 0,10 MM.

ANY PREMATURE PARTIAL OR TOTAL REMOVAL OR A PEEL COATING WILL EXPOSE THE METAL TO POSSIBLE DAMAGE THROUGH UNFINISHED MANUFACTURE OR THROUGH INSTALLATION IN UNFINISHED BUILDING SITES.

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Storage

Decorated sheet metal and metal laminates should never be stored in high moisture areas, even when still crated. Special care in storage should be given in hot and humid marine and tropical environments. Storage temperature should not exceed 85º F. (30º C) or go below 50º F (10º C) for long periods of time. Optimal storage conditions are approximately 70 F (21º C) and 50--60 % relative humidity. Especially clear coated metals with their peel coatings are sensitive to heat and humidity because it might result in condensation under the peel coat edges and in any trapped air bubbles.

Generally, all clear coated metals should also be protected against Ultraviolet light to prevent discoloration and potential failure of clear coatings.

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Shearing - Cutting - Burrs

Plain sheet metals such as Stainless Steel, Brass, Bronze and Copper should only be cut with a shear. Such a cut will result in a sharp burr on the underside (the unfinished side)of the sheet, while "drawing" the cut on the finished side into very slight rounded edge: the "down-cut" edge.
Thin gauge aluminum and metal laminates are generally cut by metal saws and hand tools. Deburring is done with routers and files.

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Bonding

Generally all plain metal sheets and metal laminates are bonded to various substrates by contact cements, by rigid glues or even double sided adhesive tapes.

Because of the great variety of metal alloys and substrates, specifiers should inquire about the chemical and mechanical suitability of any bonding process in relation to any substrate, metal alloy and intended usage load.

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Substrates

All metal laminates should be bonded to high density and high quality particle board and plywood of sufficient thickness. The quality of the substrate will promote better adherence and flatness.

Plain metal; sheet, but also metal laminates can be bonded to flat sheet metal substructures such as elevator doors or refrigerator fronts (for example).

Do not specify drywall, gypsum, concrete, solid lumber or underlayment as substrate for bonding sheet metal and metal laminates.

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Clear Lacquer Coatings

See also 1. d.e.f. METALS and 4. WEARING and 5. FORMING
Many decorated metal manufacturers will use a specific type of coating adapted to their specific products and their intended usage.

In architectural applications, most decorated plain sheet metals in Cooper and Aluminum are coated with a nitrocellulosic type lacquer. Whereas other metals and metal laminates use epoxy or urethane coatings.

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Designing With Design Increments

Most decorative patterns and textures have some form of increment, meaning a repetition of details. If such patterns cover the sheet from border to border, to be butt joint, then the alignment of increments is important.

The specifier should design the project with the idea that all repetitive design features match up at joints. On borders and on edges or that they need to be book matched on a centerline for example.
Such matching requires special measuring, especially if a design pattern needs edge bending.

It is sometimes easier to specify pattern or texture with a large border in another non feature finish such as mirror polish or satin to avoid matching.

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Designing With Butt Joints

If it is possible to butt joint metal laminates with an almost invisible joint, depending on the qualification of the craftsman, this is not advisable with plain sheets.

Sheared metal has a special configuration (see 10. SHEAR ) and all edges of decorated sheet metal should be the "down cut" side. Such butt joints are highly visible and attractive.

Many designers, knowing this, make a virtue from a vice and specify such visible butt joints or reveals.

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PVD Coatings - TiN Coatings

These technical terms are applied to a recent and little known technology also called sputtering: Stainless steel and also other alloys are coated with a gold or brass colored facing. The advantages of these coated sheet metals are multiple:

  • extreme hardness of facing and highly resistant to corrosion
  • no clear lacquer coatings needed
  • beautiful color range
  • low maintenance after installation

In addition, any decorative design patterns produced on stainless steel prior to PVD coating, will telegraph through without being compromised in brilliance or appearance.

PVD coated stainless steel is the ideal material to replace Copper Alloys and eliminate all maintenance problems associated with these metals.

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Anodizing

This electrochemical process will create a layer of aluminum oxide on the metal surface which is then sealed. Such coatings are very hard and durable. They can be specified for outdoor applications when on plain aluminum sheet.

Anodizing is available in colors ranging from standards like bronze, or gold to more exotic tints like raspberry and electric blue, for example.

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Polishing

A. MIRROR POLISHING

Also called #8 Polish, this highly reflective finish is obtained by polishing a sheet of metal with polishing compounds and polishing wheels. When done well, #8 has only a slight directional grain.

B. SUPER MIRROR POLISH

This finish is also called non-directional mirror. It is obtained through "lapping discs", a technique used to polish glass or silicone wafers. As a result this finish has absolutely no visible grain.

C. ELECTRO POLISHING

This electro chemical process is related to electroplating and electrolysis. Instead of applying metal particles, they are removed electrically from the sheet's or other 3-dimensional surfaces. The product is a low grade polish used in only low grade manufacture.

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Satin Brushing

A. INDUSTRIAL SATIN #3 AND #4

These are the most common commodity finishes of sheet metal. They are produced in large quantities by grinding the sheet with sandpaper. The grain on the sheet is linear but very short. This variety of satin cannot be used in combination with other decorative sheet metal finishes, except for coatings. It cannot be matched in repair.

B. LONG GRAIN SATIN

More fine grained than the #3 and #4, the brushing of the sheet is perfectly linear and each grain runs the length of the sheet. This type of satin brushing is used in multi-directional satin design patterns and can be combined with almost any other decorative finish.

Long grain satin can also be brushed horizontally or at any other angle. It can be matched and reproduced at site.

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Etching - Acid Etching, Sand Blasting, Laser Etching

Contrary to common belief, etching is not a generic name for metal decoration and is only one of many different processes used to decorate metal.

A. ACID ETCHING

This is the most common type of etching. Metal is removed by acid to create design patterns with a noticeable depth. Such designs are the most durable form of metal decoration. However it is an environmentally unfriendly process, it is limited to a graphical expression and cannot be produced on metal laminates.

B. SANDBLASTING / BEADBLASTING or SHOT PEENNING

By blasting metal with sand, glass or metal beads a finish very similar to acid etching is created on the sheet surface. THIS PROCESS IS NOT USABLE ON ANY METAL LAMINATES. It has no depth. Processing of large areas of a sheet will warp the metal.

C. LASER ETCHING

A powerful laser beam will also etch the metal surface . Because it is very slow, it is unpractical to use laser for large sheet metal surfaces. It is essentially used as a marking devise.

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Grinding - Random Swirl, Graffiti

A large number of randomly applied textures are produced with hand operated grinder discs. By varying the speed, type and diameter of the disc, a creative operator can produce an infinite variety of bright metallic swirly textures. These finishes can go on plain or metal laminate and effectively hide scratches on high traffic applications: columns, wainscoting etc.

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Pearl Satin

This is a new randomly applied texture with a pearlescent light effects. It can be produced on any type of metal or laminate, either as a full surface or in combination.

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Electroplating / Electrolysis

With this process a base metal will be covered with a thin film of copper, gold, nickel or other metals. Because these films are extremely thin, the underlying decorative finish will telegraph through, the most spectacular decorative finishes will be applied as accents combined with other single or multi directional process design patterns.

Since gold does not oxidize, it will be plated most often on stainless steel, plain metal or metal laminate. Nickel, copper and other silver color metals will be plated mostly on Copper alloys, plain or metal laminate. Decorative electroplating is not used on Aluminum. Electroplated metals are not suitable for outdoor applications.

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Relieves - Embossing-Coining, Roll Forming, Paint-in-Relief

Numerous decorated sheet metal products are produced with various types of relieves. These raised areas are done by the following methods:

A. Embossing - Coining

PLAIN METALS: The sheet metal will be "hit" with an embossing die which will create either a depression or a raised area in the sheet. By repeating the operation or by using large dies, even large surfaces can be embossed. Another example of embossing are coins.

METAL LAMINATES: The metal foil will be bonded to a substrate, like phenolic resin, which has been produced with a relief. Pressure and bonding process will telegraph the relief of a substrate through the foil.

B. Roll Forming:

Only plain sheet metal can be roll formed. Since this process requires an automated flow through technology, only coiled sheet metal can be used. After unwinding from a coil, the metal will be laminated between 2 pressure rolls which have been etched with a positive and a negative of the design pattern. The pattern is then pressed onto the sheet.

A desirable byproduct of this process is the hardening of the metal. It is therefore possible to specify a thinner material when it has been roll-formed.

Another, non-decorative form of roll forming is used to produce profiles an moldings from sheet metal. In that case, a coiled sheet or strip of metal passes through a succession of shaping rollers.

C. Paint-in-Relief

This proprietary formula allows for the production of sheet metals, plain and laminate, with a customized relief in color.

While EMBOSSING and ROLL FORMING are large production runs only, this method allows custom jobs from 1 to any number of sheets.

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Colored Stainless Steel - Inco Process

Unknown to most, stainless steel does have a layer of oxide, but a transparent one. The INCO process can electrochemically alter this oxide layer. This produces an appearance of color ranging from black, navy blue to reddish and golden tones.

By applying a decorative masking to such materials, this layer of oxide can be removed selectively, to expose the underlying silver color of Stainless Steel. The result are very attractive 2 color design patterns.

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Custom Metal Graphics - Custom Design Patterns

This term designates all CUSTOM design patterns and textures which are produced with one or several methods on plain sheet, on coil or on metal laminates.

Typically a product designer, an architect or interior designer will produce the original idea which will then be executed by a manufacturer such as Surface Design + Technology of Miami, or others.

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Standard Design Patterns and Textures

In this case the metal decoration is pre-designed and pre-specified by the manufacturer of the product line. It is delivered only in standard sheet sizes, thickness and alloys. No custom features, like borders are possible. As a result these products are substantially less expensive than any customized decorations.

Examples:

  • Alpha Collection by Surface Design + Technology
  • Decometals by Formica Corporation
  • Decorative Metals by Wilsonart International

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Samples

NO DESIGN ON PAPER, OR EVEN A COMPUTER SCREEN CAN ADEQUATELY REPRESENT THE BEAUTY OF A DECORATED METAL SURFACE. A SAMPLE IS AN ABSOLUTE MUST.

CUSTOM SAMPLES:

To rapidly produce a custom sample, the manufacturer will require a sketch or drawing, or camera ready art for a logo, or a computer file. The specifier need to document desired finishes, the intended purpose and any measures. Delivery of such samples will be jointly with budget pricing or suggestions for better or less costly alternatives.

STANDARD DESIGN PATTERNS:

All manufacturers distribute samples chains or sample binders which contain information.

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Pricing

The variety of factors which determine pricing are infinite in both product categories and finishes. It is therefore, impossible to establish a price list. All pricing will be on request only.

A. CUSTOM METAL GRAPHICS

Besides thickness, type and quantity of metal and sheets, the complexity of the planned design pattern will be the most important pricing factor. We will therefore submit budget pricing to the specifier when discussing the project and submitting samples. The result may be an alternative design at lower or higher cost, providing the designer with more budgetary flexibility. In addition to cost per item, we will add a cost for art and set up charges.

B. STANDARD METAL GRAPHICS

Contrary to the above, prices are pre-set. Together with standard sheet sizes, thickness and types of metal. Such materials are substantially less expensive, especially when important quantity discounts apply. No art nor setup charges will be added.

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Fire Ratings

Because metals are not combustible, they have NO FIRE RATING.
Only when metals are bonded to a substrate like metal laminates, or when plain metals are bonded to plywood as an example, then a fire rating might apply.

Specifiers need to consult with manufacturers of individual product lines or verify with local Building Codes.

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